Acne (Acne Vulgaris) is a disease of the sebaceous glands in the skin and the canal through which the secretions of these glands reach the surface of the skin. These glands are larger and more numerous on the skin of the face, back, and thorax. There are only a few of them on the face, the other on the face and back, and those who have them only on the skin of the chest are rare. Almost every adolescent once has a smaller number of pimples (85% of those with so-called physiological pimples), while others have significantly more. This normal occurrence in adolescence often disturbs young people. Of this, 15% has a more severe form to be treated.
The illness is very common, occurs in almost 80% of adolescents of both sexes. Most commonly, acne occurs between the age of 13 and 15 and is withdrawn after 20 years, although in some patients it can be seen even after 30 years of age.
Although many believe that acne is a disease of adolescents, it can occur in people (both men and women) in the thirties and even forties. Men tend to have more severe forms of acne than women. Severe acne can leave permanent scars.
Usually, acne occurs for the first time about thirteen years of age, and this is the case with girls earlier because they enter puberty earlier. Pimples are rarely seen in children from the age of seven to nine.
How they arise
Acne is found in parts of the skin that produce fat and are called the sebaceous glands; These glands are located around the hair follicles in the skin. The sebaceous glands secrete an oily mixture called sebum and which normally expands to the surface of the skin. During adolescence, the sebaceous glands increase and produce more sebum, especially on the face, on the chest, and back. Acne occurs when the normal sebum path to the surface of the skin becomes clogged, so the sebum accumulates in the gland itself. This accumulated content ultimately sprinkles the hair follicle, causing the inflamed node to form under the skin. These knots (nodules) often leave scars.
Various factors are important for the formation: hereditary (genetic) sensitivity to the elimination of the tallow, male (androgenic) sex hormones (including women naturally present), skin fat, immunological factors, bacterial activity, and inflammation. Acne is produced in the oiliest skin areas where there are mostly sebaceous glands. They can appear on the face, where, unfortunately, they are most visible and thus very disturbing. They can also appear on the cleavage, shoulders, and on back.
Acne does not cause bad nutrition, dirt, or oily skin. Factors that can aggravate acne include emotional tension, fatigue, and cosmetic preparations.
Acne is a consequence of the narrowing of the follicular mouth (the root of the hair), which is due to the changing way of creating keratinization (keratinization), – the rotating proteins from which the skin cells are built. In the lower part of the follicle of discarded surface, i.e. epithelial cells and accumulated tallow can not come out on the surface of the skin and in follicles, they form in a white-yellowish mass called common.
Clinical Image Acne
All changes in acne can be divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammation may occur due to inflammation of the surface of the follicle or inflammation of the deeper parts of the follicles.
Non-inflammatory lesions are open and closed comedones, and acne is called acne comedogenic or punctate. In the inflammation of the follicle surface, a short-term erythematosus macula is seen, which is rapidly transformed into papilla (acne papulosa). Papula can be transformed into a pustule (acne pustulosa). The pustule shoots, a short-term erosion is formed that quickly breaks through the flesh. The crown is no scratch.
Preferred sites for acne are seborrhoeic regions. In younger people, acne is mainly on the face, in the elderly, and on the back. Acne occurs in puberty when patients otherwise pay close attention to their physical appearance.
They can be atrophic and hypertrophic. In large scars, calcifications (calcium carbonate precipitation) are possible. An extremely hypertrophic scar is called a keloid. In severe acne, there are scars in the shape of a bridge, called bridged scars. They are specific to acne.
Where they appear
The changes are therefore most commonly localized on the face, rarely on the shoulders, the upper part of the jaw, and the region around the chest bone. There are different images of acne vulgaris. The first is acne comedogenic, which is the form in which the comedones of these two papules or pustules prevail. Changes in this form of acne vulgaris are present only on the face of patients with pronounced sebaceous. Acne papulopustular is a medium-tough form in which we find, with comedones, papules, and pustules. This form is found on all parts of the body with increased stiffness of the game, especially the face.
Types of acne;
- Acne poleosa: seen by people working with machine oil. Pre-treatment places are the forehead and zygomatic facial parts, since they dirty sweat from the forehead. There may also be other parts of the skin when the machine oil is rubbed off from a dirty work suit.
- Chloracne occurs in people working with chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are associated with other signs of poisoning, usually neurological.
- Acne medicine-mentos: due to taking some medicines, usually due to androgen, anabolic, antiepileptics, and lithium. They look like ordinary acne.
- Acne Mechanica is due to mechanical skin irritation. They are seen at a violinist on the neck, at the head of people wearing a hairband or helmet, on the back of people wearing jackets.
- Acne determinants occur in people using soaps and washing agents that contain comedogenic substances. The changes are in the form of a come done, on the face.
- Acne cosmetics are due to the presence of comedogenic substances in cosmetic products. They are located at places of application of such cosmetics. Changes are in the form of comedones, and they occur in women of age when they should not have acne. Good cosmetics do not contain comedogenic substances. Sometimes cosmetic preparations have been tested for the presence of comedogenic substances by the application on the rabbit’s ears, as there may be changes similar to the comedians. This model is abandoned because it is not adequate for skin reactions to the application of the same agent. There are numerous products where the manufacturer has declared that the product does not contain comedogenic substances, and lately it has not been tested on animals.
- Acne tropical occurs in people living in tropical areas where there is high humidity. Due to its high external humidity, the stratum corneum swells and the sebum is more difficult to eliminate. Sometimes they occur as an epidemic among tourists or soldiers.
The diagnosis of acne is based solely on the clinical picture. Acne therapy can be local and general. Local therapy involves regular skin cleansing (hot water, acidic or neutral soaps), and then rubbing the skin with an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, or resorcinol. Erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline are used from the local antibiotic preparations.
Regular mechanical displacement of the comedones is required, and in the case of existing papulopustulosic infiltrates, opening with a stinging incision (tip of the needle). In severe and severe forms of acne, oral therapy is necessary. The most commonly used tetracycline antibiotics over several months.
For cleaning, therefore, we use gentle and mild cleansers (gel or milk), which are then washed with water. With these tools, we can cleanse the face, back, and neckline, or everywhere, where there are pimples or acne. These agents usually dry out the skin, which is why it is obligatory to use a tonic that restores tonus and moisture to the skin and adjusts pH. If the skin does not have enough moisture, it tries to replace it with more sebum secretion – this is a fat, and then we have a vicious circle.
In acne, it is therefore important that problematic skin is well-purified in the morning and in the evening, and that acne, pimples, and similar visible “outgrowths” on the skin are not pressed and not removed for the sake of being infected too quickly. We must wait patiently to improve the situation or go to an expertly trained person to remove them. We can also help with home remedies, such as poor. For severe forms, however, the doctor’s visit is definitely a specialist.
Does acne’s healing help heal? Although the temptation is often very high, try to avoid this procedure. This will only damage the skin and spread infection and inflammation, and therefore delay the cure and speed up the formation of scars. When you can not avoid this procedure, gently fold them only with black or white tops (mites), and before and after that, you must disinfect your face.
Can facial cleansing cure acne? Washing soap can not remove acne. Everything that the team accomplishes is removing impurities and excess fat. Although washing can contribute to improving acne, do not overdo it. A certain amount of fat on your face will require that the face is not dry. Often washing and rubbing can only damage the face. Tip – use only unparalleled soaps. If your soap irritates the face of your face, replace it immediately.
Can clothing affect acne? Yes. If acne exists on your body, wear light, wide clothes, avoid materials that irritate the skin such as wool and synthetics. Hygiene of underwear and clothes is also very important.
Does makeup negatively affect acne? It’s common that girls try to cover the acne with makeup, so pores on the skin become closed acne. This procedure rarely progresses, but also creates conditions for the aggravation of acne. People who need makeup for psychological reasons should use it as little as possible, and briefly.