The amino acids are organic acids, which in their composition, in addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, also contain nitrogen. Carbon black 50-50%, water 6-7%, oxygen 19-24%, az 15-18%, and sulfur 0.3-2.4%. For amino acids, it is characteristic that each of them contains one amino (NH2) and carboxylic group (COOH), which give their amphoteric (buffer) properties to the proteins to which the composition is an inlet.
The carbon atoms are counted from one end, and the greatest advantage, (C-1) is given to carbon having a substituent with the largest atomic number. According to this convention, the carboxyl group would be C-1, and α-C would be C-2. In some cases when R is a heterocyclic group (e.g., an imidazole ring of histidine), this counting system is applied. For amino acids with branched aliphatic chains, equivalents of carbon atoms are given after Greek letters.
For amino acids with branched-chain aliphatic equivalent carbon atoms, numbers are given after Greek letters. Amino acids are interconnected in the protein molecule, so-called. Peptide bonds. Combinations of amino acids in protein molecules can be different, which is important for many functions of proteins in the body. The number of amino acids in the organisms of the organism can be over 300 (high molecular weight polypeptide i).
The organism may have over 300 (high molecular weight polypeptide i). The amino acid has 20, and by composition and functions, they are divided into essential and non-essential. Cells of an organism are capable of constructing (synthesizing) ordinary amino acids (non-essential), while the synthesis of essential is impossible, so they must be fed with food. These are histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, leucine.
Non-essential include alanine, cysteine, glycine, arginine, asparagine, cystine, proline, serine, glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine. In children’s age, the arginine and histidine amino acids are also essential, because they do not synthesize fast enough, that is, in the skin that is necessary for intensive growth processes in this period of life. Essential amines for islets, as mentioned above, must be fed with food, mainly of animal origin (meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, bread, rice, peas, corn, fruit).
FUNCTIONS OF AMINOOKSELIN IN ORGANIZATION
Amino acids may be debilitated by the NH2 group (deamination), and the amino acid relaxant residue is used to obtain energy by oxidation over the cycle. After deamination, the residue is also used for the synthesis of sugar and fat. Give their amino group to create new amino acids from their already existing ones and become material for the construction of body proteins. The amine group is coupled with water and ammonia (NH3) is formed. Ammonia is then combined with CO2 grade and urea, which is secreted by the urine. One of the basic functions of amoxicillin is structural protein synthesis (protein).
Daily intake for healthy people who do not deal with sports should amount to 10 – 1 5% of the total energy input.
Unlike proteins, the amino acids did not “await” dissolution but were directly “injected” into the bloodstream.
A description of the functions of some of the most significant amino acids:
Essential for muscular metabolism. He is a true carrier for the storage and utilization of nitrogen. An important component for building and regenerating tissue. In high concentrations, it is found in the skin and connective tissue and helps to remove ammonia as part of the urea cycle.
BCAA: (branched chain amino acids, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine)
The muscular tissue is heavily woven from BCAA, which it uses to produce energy and protein synthesis. They are also included in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, chemical processes in the brain that affect mood and mental functions.
Carnitine is essentially a dipeptide-amino acid composed of the other two essential amino acids, methionine, and lysine. L-Carnitine is important for the metabolism of fat, especially in the heart and muscle cells. It is necessary for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria where the acids oxidize and burn up producing energy.
Amino with sulfur and antioxidant properties. It is important for the synthesis of keratin, a protein found in the skin, hair, and nails. It plays an important role in the metabolism of energy and synthesis of fatty acids.
It is the most common amino in wheat. It is involved in the metabolism of sugar and fat. It plays an important role in the functioning of the brain, the synthesis of DNA, glutathione, and other amino acids. Helps remove ammonia from the body.
The most important source of energy for the brain and the whole body. It has it in the cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain. The concentration of glutamine in the blood is three to four times higher than all other amino acids. The body changes it to glutamic acid. It has been proven to have an exceptional role in the proper functioning of the immune system.
A natural carrier of sulfur, a peptide consisting of three amino acids: glutamine, cysteine , and glycine. It acts as an antioxidant and detoxifier and is involved in the transport of amino acids via cell membranes.
It is a natural antacid and sweetener that participates in the DNA, phospholipid, and collagen sites. It helps to store glucose for energy by increasing the storage capacity of glycogen.
Although both children and adults can synthesize slightly little histidine in the body, most enter the body’s diet. Satan is from histidine, and the cells release it in the immune response. It is important for the growth and regeneration of tissue.
It is important for growth, tissue regeneration, and the production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies. Recent research focuses on a possible role in the fight against herpes viruses. It is largely in muscle tissue.
Another amino acid with sulfur and antioxidant properties. It is important for healthy nails and skin, the synthesis of taurine, L-cysteine, lecithin, bile, L-carnitine, and endorphins.
Combined with L-arginine acts on the growth hormone. It is necessary for the functions of the liver and the immune system.
DLPA (D, L-phenylalanine)
DLPA is a combination of the natural form of phenylalanine (L form) and its mirror image (D form). DL-phenylalanine seems to have a unique role as a blocker of some central nervous system enzymes that are typically responsible for the breakdown of natural, morphine-like, hormone-called endorphins, and enkephalin.
Simple sulfur compound and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body. It has different roles for the normal functioning of the brain, heart, bile, eyes, and circulatory system. Its function is to enable the passage of sodium, potassium, and magnesium ions through cell membranes by stabilizing the cellular electrocyte. For small babies, taurine is essential because it can not be synthesized independently.
Important for the development and stable function of the thyroid gland and immune system. In combination with L-aspartic acid and L-methionine, it helps the liver function.
It is an integral part of protein amino acids and amino lipids, which have multiple functions. It is important for the brain since it is a precursor for neurotransmitters – dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. An important part of some peptides, such as enkephalins that serve to relieve pain in the brain. The precursor is a hormone such as thyroid and cholesterol (compounds that are at the same time estrogens and catecholamines) and the most important for pigmentation – melanin.