Carcinoma of the esophagus is a disease in which malignant cells develop inside the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube whose role is the transport of food from the mouth to the stomach. There are two basic types of esophageal carcinoma, plant cellular carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Planocellular carcinoma originates from the esophagus epithelial cells and is localized in the upper and middle segments of the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma originates from the glandular cells and is localized in the esophagus endings.
Carcinoma of the esophagus is considered an aggressive disease with a bad prognosis. Around the world occupies the sixth place in the number of deaths. Overall one-year survival of these patients amounts to about 33%.
Benign tumors are rare, makeup only about 1% of all tumors of the esophagus. They are usually small and with no significant symptoms.
While the malignant tumor of the esophagus is cancer (cancer), and fewer are lymphomas (tumors of white blood cells) and leiomyosarcomas (tumors of smooth muscle cells). A malignant tumor develops from the skin of the esophagus itself and rapidly builds up metastases. But if it is discovered on time, it can be eliminated through surgery. In this most serious condition, most people suffer from mice over 60 years of age.
Risk factors for the formation
The tumor develops from the epithelial cavity in the esophagus. It occurs in the upper or middle part of the esophagus. However, adenocarcinoma results from the squamous cell and most commonly appears in the constituent part of this organ. The risk factors for the formation of plant cellular carcinoma of the esophagus is as follows; smoking and long-term consumption of large quantities of alcoholic beverages, as well as foods rich in fat, and poorer proteins, people infected with HPV, as well as those who take quick food and carbonated drinks.
But we must point out that an important role in the development of cancer plays a genetic predisposition.
Based on the histological picture we distinguish two basic types of esophageal cancer:
- Planocellular carcinoma (90-95%) leads to the formation of platelet-layer epithelium so that it can occur in any part of the esophagus, and most commonly in the middle third. This type of mapping is more common in parts of Asia and South America and is also more frequent in the black population. Excessive intake of alcohol and smoking is the most important etiological factor for this cancer. Other etiological factors are carcinogenic ingestion, vitamin deficiency, chronic inflammation, HPV infection, Plummer Vinson syndrome, chalazia.
- Adenocarcinoma leads to the origin of the stomach epithelium and develops almost exclusively in the distal third of the esophagus. This type of cancer is four times more common in a large population. The main risk factor is gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERB) and chronic inflammation. Most adenocarcinoma occurs in the field of Barrett’s metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the distal third of the esophagus is difficult to distinguish from cardiovascular adenocarcinoma spread to the esophagus.
Symptoms of esophageal cancer
It is difficult to determine the onset of the disease. It begins to sink. When the esophageal lumen slopes to <14 mm, dysphagia often occur. First, there is interference with the swallowing of the solid, then the semi-solid, and finally the liquid food and saliva; this progression is more likely to indicate a malignant process than a spasm, a benign ring, or peptic stenosis. Chest pain can be expressed and usually spreads in the back.
A fistula between the esophagus and the tracheobronastic tree can lead to the development of lung abscesses and pneumonia. Hemorrhoid vein syndrome, malignant ascites, and bone pain occur.
Every other patient loses the bodyweight as a result of the intake of food intake. There is also tenderness and frequent vomiting and abdominal breathing. Then, the lumps of the gland on the throat thicken to increase the metastasis.
Testing tests do not exist. Therefore, blood tests are first performed, where basic blood tests are set, including KKS, electrolytes, and liver function parameters. After that, an endoscopy was done, and the brush removed for a pathohistological examination.
The endoscope is retracted through the mouth and throat into the esophagus. Her endurance is that allows direct visualization of abnormalities, as well as taking tissue samples for pathohistological analysis.
If a physician notices normal tissue, it will remove a small piece of tissue to be examined under a microscope to determine malignant cells. The procedure is called a biopsy.
X-rays with barium does not facilitate biopsy but is less invasive and can also identify small abnormalities. The doctor can also examine the inside of the trachea with another thin, lighted tube. This diagnosis is called a bronchoscopy.
You need to know that alcohol and cigarettes are a major factor in raising the risk. It is important to be vigilant with consumption and try to reduce their taking. Fast foods and carbonated beverages are also featured as factors. It is therefore very important to address the nutritious diet it is a source of good health. It has been proven that many products that originate from animal origin. Salami products, salted and preserved, encourage the development of any cancer in humans.
But when it comes to eating an esophagus, it is important to avoid eating red meat and locally sourced foods.
The diet should include as much fresh fruit and vegetables, asparagus, fruit, nickel, honey, and everything that is healthy and organic.
The choice of therapy and the prognosis of the disease depend on the majority of malignant disease from the stage. Whether the tumor is localized only in the esophagus, or the surrounding tissues, organs, or distant metastases are involved. It is a very important factor and the general health condition of the patients.
In the treatment of this disease are used:
- radiation therapy,
- surgical therapy and
Surgical therapy is the most common and is reflected in the removal of a part of the esophagus affected by malignant cells. High energy radiation also affects the malignant cells, and chemotherapy represents systemic therapy, and malignant cells attack it with drugs. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can improve the course of the disease and the length of survival.