What it means healthy food-all about healthy eating
The biggest problem of the modern human is a health and proper nutrition. Related to human health is the daily way of eating. Proper and healthy foods help in daily physical and mental activities.
Healthy food is a major factor in human health. It allows for more regular physical and spiritual development.
Notion nutrition means introducing various substances of organic and inorganic nature. Using food is restoring and building cells and tissues. All these substances are nutrients.
Food sustains us in life. Without food cannot grow or develop. Food ability to manage the biochemical processes at the cellular level. Everything begins and ends for food associated with human health.
With eating man entered things are important for the proper functioning of metabolism. In patients, this process can disrupt. So, it is an important food intake for each patient. God means a cure and recovery. Food can also prevent and treat some diseases. But that does not mean that we can put the drugs, in the narrow sense.
The importance of healthy food
Healthy food is food that does not contain in itself too much protein and fat. Food that contains carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals -means health. Plant foods, fruits, whole grains, seeds, are all types of food that are rich in the necessary things for the body.
Healthy food means eating as simple as possible. Eat-in moderation, not too fast, and with consciousness, is part of healthy eating. Do not mix foods of different compositions. For example carbohydrates with proteins.
Thus, it is necessary to enter all the necessary nutrients for healthy and normal functioning of the body. Not everybody the same. And everybody does not work the same with different food. Thus, it is necessary to know and check the needs of your body. We would avoid various diseases and aging. Eating proper means do not overwhelm the meal and that it does not take uncontrolled food. So there is a destruction of certain brain cells, nervous system instability and reduce the resistance of the whole body.
So it is unquestionable what type of food we put in ours. But eating habits are part of healthy eating. To get him, it is necessary to start with small ages. Fruits and vegetables should be the basis of these habits. So will build strong and healthy digestion. Thus we build a healthy body.
Physiology of Digestion
Digestion takes place in the digestive tract. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. And liver and pancreas are two glands that are important for digestion. Here we must mention the nerve centers that regulate food intake. And the satiety center located in the hypothalamus.
How digestion takes place?
It begins in the mouth. Here takes place shredding and mixing of food with the help of teeth, language, and chewing muscles. In the mouth, saliva soaking food. She is a product of the salivary glands. Which contains the enzyme ptyalin (amylase). This enzyme breaks down starch into simple sugars. Such as glucose and maltose.
There are three pairs of sight glands. These are the sublingual glands (glandular sublingual), submandibular gland glandular submandibular) and zaušne glands (glandular parts).
Trip of food through the mouth to the pharynx and esophagus. At the lower end of the throat is cut. He was in the act of swallowing gorge close lid – the epiglottis. His function is to prevent the entry of food into the trachea. And ends with the gizzard.
In the gizzard, there is a layer of smooth muscles that constrict and thereby grind food. He converts food into humus (mixture like porridge). Inside him is secrete HCl enzyme pepsin and mucus. HCl acid medium cheeses. Hi inhibits the activity of amylase and stops the digestion of carbohydrates. Followed by the decomposition of proteins under the action of gastric juice. They break down protein molecules in peptide chains.
After digestion in the stomach, chyme travels to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). In the beginning, there is a ring-shaped muscle (pyloric sphincter). He prevents the passage of food before is digested in the stomach. There are excreted pancreatic juices to neutralize the acidic chyme, juices, and liver.
Pancreatic enzymes act glycolytic, lipolytic, and proteolytic. Besides them, there is also the bile. Her role is to emulsify fats and fat-soluble vitamins. This means that enables better absorption of fatty substances from the intestines. Bile is secreted to signal that the grease entered the digestive tract.
Then the basic nutrients dissolve in the form in which absorbs into the bloodstream via the portal vein system. There is digesting food turns into a liquid form which the nutrients absorbed in the blood. After the small intestine, the content continues in the large intestine. In the colon, the total volume of content reduces with the absorption of water. All unused in the form of fecal mass removed from the body.
To enter into our bodies all the necessary nutrients, during the day should eat different foods in several installments. Thus it provides all the necessary energy for overall functionality. Different nutrients have different origins.
They are divided into;
- Organic: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins
- Inorganic: minerals and water
Carbohydrates (sugars) are substances whose primary role of energy. They are very important in healthy food. According to the complexity of the structure of the molecule, share carbohydrates too:
Monosaccharides -have a simpler structure. Are easily digestible. These include; glucose- the most important simple sugar. It is the source of energy for all organs and muscles. Fructose-fruit sugar, It’s in fruits and honey and galactose-milk sugar.
The only form directly available station is glucose. This is why all other carbohydrates are transformed into glucose, which can be used as a source of energy in cells.
Disaccharides – consist of two molecules of monosaccharides.
These include; Sucrose (table sugar) – is located in the sugar beet and cane. Lactose (milk sugar) – milk ingredient and maltose (malt sugar) – is located in fresh and fermented foods.
Polysaccharide-complex sugars (Starch, glycogen, cellulose). Consists of more monosaccharide units and more difficult to digest. Divided into the plant; starch and cellulose and animal polysaccharides; glycogen – represents depot carbohydrates in the liver and muscles.
Fats (lipids) are mainly energy-matter.
According to the biochemical composition are divided into:
- Lipid- first conventional triglycerides (fatty acid esters of glycerol), sterols (cholesterol)
- Phospholipids – complex lipids, have a constitutive role (build cell membrane)
- Glycolipids – complex compounds of sugar and lipid components (providing energy)
Lipids are the largest source of energy. Lipid molecules consisting of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fatty acids may be saturated and unsaturated. Fats are compounds of saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic) that are of animal origin. Oils are compounds with unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic). They are of plant origin. For the regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol in the blood, Unsaturated fatty acids are important.
The role of fat in the body:
– Energy reserve
– A structural role
– Maintain the integrity of the skin
– Role in thermoregulation
– Role in blood coagulation
– Role in immunity
– Give a feeling of satiety and enhance the flavor of food
Proteins– have a constitutive role in our body. Necessary for tissue growth. They are a part of every cell, tissue, hormones, digestive enzymes, hemoglobin. Work in the production and transport of lipids. They consist of long chains of amino acids that can be essential and non-essential. Nonessential amino acids our body can produce, while the essential must be taken daily through food.
The main roles in the body:
– Construction and renovation of muscle tissue and cells
– The growth of hair, nails, and skin
– Building hormones
– Construction of an enzyme
– Improving the immune system (antibodies)
– Restoration of hemoglobin
– Nutrient transport
– The maintenance of acid-base balance
– A source of energy in the lack of fat and sugar.
Vitamins are organic substances necessary to our body. We take them through food.
We can divide them into;
– Liposoluble (soluble in fats) – A, D, E, K
– Soluble (soluble in water) – F, B-complex
Hypovitaminosis is the condition of the body when has an insufficient intake of vitamins or their lack of absorption. But with hypervitaminosis is the condition of the body when there is an excessive amount of vitamin in the body. Deficiency disease is a state of complete lack of vitamins in the body.
Vitamin A (Akseroftol) -Its main role is for the growth and development of the epithelial tissue. Besides this above, is essential for the maintenance of metabolism. It also has antioxidant activity. When there is a lack of this vitamin, causes the disease or night blindness and dermatological problems. The main sources of food of animal origin: liver, eggs, milk products. But excessive concentration is toxic. The recommended daily dose for adults is 800-1000 μg (3500-5000 IJ)
Vitamin D (Calciferol) – known as the sunshine vitamin. An essential vitamin for the growth and development of bones. His function is to regulate the metabolism of calcium and phosphate. Supports the synthesis and secretion of insulin. By exposure of the skin to sunlight, produces about 80% of the required amount in the body. It is not necessary to over-exposure to the sun because the process of synthesis is controlled. In young children, the lack of this vitamin causes rickets and osteomalacia in adults osteoporosis. So in the first year of life, with little babies, recommended giving drops with vitamin D. Overdose causes: lack of appetite, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness, severe thirst. The daily requirement is 5-10 mg (800 IU children, adults 300-600IJ).
Vitamin E (tocopherol) – known as a powerful antioxidant. His function is to protect cells from aging and prevents unstable molecules that damage cells and tissue. Also protects the lung tissue from polluting substances in the air, participating in the creation of reproductive cells, improves the function of the nervous system, the pituitary gland. This vitamin is present in foods of plant origin (vegetable oils). We can find it and in seafood, nuts, avocados. Through the food we consume enough amounts of this vitamin, it is not a necessary supplementary amount. Also known as an anti-sterility vitamin because it is needed for sexual glands and normal pregnancy. Daily needs are 20-30 mg.
Vitamin K- His function is to prevent bleeding and blood clotting. So it is known as coagulation or antihemoragični vitamin. We can find it in two forms; K1-over food, K2-synthesized by bacteria in the small intestine. Foods that are the source of this vitamin are, cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, peas, carrots, fish oil. Reinforced the lack of this vitamin is happening only in the most severe cases of diseases of the digestive tract. The same occurs in premature babies when not developed intestinal bacterial flora. So immediately after birth is giving vitamin K. Daily needs are 100-300 mg.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) – We can find it in fruits and vegetables. This is a vitamin that is first obtained synthetically. Is also the single most-vitamin. Its essential role is to absorb the iron in the blood. It is important for the synthesis of collagen and for the metabolism of fatty acids. Vitamin C is the most powerful antioxidant among vitamins. Lack of the organism causes the disease scurvy. This excess vitamin can lead to the formation of kidney stones. Daily requirements: 50-100 mg, in disease states and up to 1000 mg or more.
B-complex vitamins- these are vitamins that are not deposited in the body. So it must enter through food. These are water-soluble vitamins that are soluble in water. Functions of all vitamins from this group allow the energy from the released sugars. Using this energy we get the normal functioning of the individual sites in the body.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) – This is a very important vitamin for the nervous system. Its deficiency leads to irritability, nervous imbalance. Use it, we get better concentration and better functioning of the nervous system. We can find it in fruit, peeled grains, sunflower seeds, legumes, dried baker’s yeast. Lack of this vitamin leads to the occurrence of the disease beriberi. It is a disorder of muscle weakness. Therefore daily needs are 1-1.5 or 2 mg.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) – the body serves as a catalyst in chemical reactions for the use of carbohydrates and fats. Use it to create worms, blood cells. Also acts as an antioxidant. An important factor for growth. He is involved in the metabolic processes of the entire body. Lack of this vitamin causes; deterioration of the skin and the retina (impaired vision), slow growth. Also can appear and cracked and red corners of the mouth, inflammation of the eyelids, sensitivity to light, redness of the cornea. So it is necessary to take foods rich in riboflavin. These are milk and dairy products, and liver then produced whole wheat and dark green leafy vegetables. Daily needs are 1-2 mg.
Vitamin B3 (niacin) – of the entire group of vitamin B-complex, this is the only vitamin that occurs in two forms. Appears as nicotinic acid and as a salt thereof, nicotinamide. Its importance in the metabolism of glucose, fat, and alcohol. He is the only one who is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan. Help nicotinic acid can feel at cholesterol and triglycerides, in dysmenorrhea, in acne, photosensitivity. She’s deficiency leads to a disease known as pellagra. This disease is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Occurs in people whose food is low in protein. These are chronic alcoholics. So the richest foods of this vitamin are mushrooms, asparagus and leafy dark green vegetables, peanuts, fish, and meat. The daily requirement of this vitamin is 15-20 mg.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) – This is a vitamin that is important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Its role in the synthesis of cholesterol. In nature can be found everywhere. And that in the two forms-pure pantothenic acid and a salt of CA-pantothenate. Pantothenic acid helps in preventing rheumatoid arthritis acne. While pantothenate helps regulate the high content of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. We can find him at meat, fish (especially salmon), whole grains, and legumes. Daily needs are 4-7 mg for adults and 3-4 mg for adolescents.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) – This is the most important vitamin in the body. He is important for the construction of amino acids, and thus the proteins that make up the whole organism. Recommended for active athletes. It is very useful in autism, celiac disease, depression, high cholesterol. His deficit is very rare. The main sources of this vitamin are meat (especially liver and turkey meat), fish (tuna), eggs, milk, potatoes, cereals, spinach, and fruit (bananas, avocados, raisins). An important factor is that heat destroys vitamin B6. Required daily amounts of 1.5-2 mg.
Vitamin B7 (biotin) – His role in the process of gluconeogenesis (glucose production), fatty acid synthesis, and the synthesis of glycogen (the storage form of glucose). The sources of this vitamin are cauliflower, carrots, liver, peanuts, cheese, bananas, and mushrooms. Biotin is produced in the intestines under the influence of intestinal microflora. Daily requirements are 150 mg.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) – This vitamin is important for the growth and development of cells and in the maintenance of normal erythropoiesis. Is also important for the synthesis of nucleic acids. Folic acid is important for every pregnant woman because it prevents the development of neural tube defects in a child. Helps you with diseases of the gums (gingivitis). Lack of this vitamin is possible in alcoholics and in women who for a long time using birth control pills. When it comes to the lack of this vitamin, then comes to anemia, disabled protein synthesis and cell division, and difficult regeneration of cells of the digestive system. The main sources are legumes, liver, oranges, wheat germ, and dark green leafy vegetables. Daily needs are 150-200 mg and for pregnant women are 400-800 mg.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) – This is a vitamin required for the propagation of the cells. Quickly and easily degrades in the light, so it takes a dark place. When there is a lack of this vitamin appears and chronic fatigue. Can lead to anemia and some neurological damage and skin sensitization. We can find it only in foods of animal origin (meat, fish, milk, eggs). So vegetarians are at risk when talking about this vitamin. The recommended daily dose is about 2 mg.
Calcium (Ca) – This is the most abundant mineral in the body. These are the vital processes that, no one can do without this mineral. This is the main mineral of bones and teeth. We can get it from food. It is found in dairy products, vegetables, fruit. In the body bones continuous release of the car and installed a new one. It is a dangerous lack of this mineral thus leading to bone loss and osteoporosis. Important to know is that vitamin A and calcium we must not take together because vitamin A encourages the loss of calcium from bones and thus could result in hypercalcemia. It is not recommended to take with the FA CA because it prevents the absorption of FA. The CA is recommended to take vitamin D because it enhances the absorption of the CA from the intestine. Daily doses are recommended; 1000-1200 mg for persons under 25 years, and 800 to 1000 mg for people over 25 years of age.
Potassium (K) –It is in third place after the representation of the body, after CA and P. Its function is to maintain the distribution of fluids in the body and pH balance. Improves the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Lack of it can cause a factor in the occurrence of high blood pressure. You’re losing through sweating K and so need to eat foods rich in potassium. These are lean meats, fresh fruits, and vegetables (tomatoes, bananas, potatoes), sunflower seeds.
Magnesium (Mg) – It is important for all organs in particular for the proper functioning of the heart, muscle, kidney, and for building bones and teeth. Its application is found in heart disease, cramps and muscle weakness, alcoholism, diabetes, constipation, osteoporosis. We can find it in green vegetables, grain cereals, nuts, corn, soybeans, meat.
Phosphorus (P) – is located in the bones, teeth, and body fluids. When it appears the too a large amount of phosphorus in relation to calcium, then phosphorus prevents the use of calcium. We can find it in dairy products, meat, and grains.
Sodium (Na) – when combined with C1 produced salt. (NaCl). It is the main source of sodium and chlorine. Salt is the main extracellular cation and it is very important to maintain the acid-base balance. Loss happens with abundant sweating, diarrhea, vomiting. Then can occur and dehydration.
Iron (Fe, Ferrum) – In the organism is found in blood and has the composition of hemoglobin. Its role is to transport oxygen. We can find it associated with proteins, especially with ferritin. Iron deficiency anemia is known as iron deficiency. This is the result of insufficient iron intake of food. But because vitamin C increases the absorption of iron. We can find it in foods of plant and animal origin. Daily requirements are 18 mg for adult men and 28 mg for adult females.
Iodine (J, I) – This is an essential part of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). The lack of these hormones in children can lead to mental retardation. And adults can develop a goiter. It is very important that these ordinations of salt. Such entries are permanently iodine in the organism. But we can find it in fruits and vegetables. Daily needs are about 75 mg, and in pregnancy in women and up to 250 mg.
Flora (F) – the main source of water. We can find it in the bone tissue and teeth. Excess causes dark spots on tooth enamel which is referred to as fluorosis. Daily requirements are 1-1.5 mg.
ENERGY AND BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF FOOD And basal metabolism
For proper function and operation of the organs and their supply of energy, the main factor is food. So it is very important what we eat, when and how. Because every kind of food brings empty energy value. It is very important and that the amount we consume, in what order and spacing of various foods. On the other, water is one of the factors for the values of the energy-distribution through the body.
Energy from food gets the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein. That energy value of food means the calories, which measures the amount of heat released by the food in the metabolic process. Calories are units that measure the energy value of food. And that calories spend in three different ways;
- Basal metabolism
- Physical activity
- Extra energy to digest food during the day.
So it is important to know that bodyweight depends on the intake and consumption of calories. To name what it looks like a sequence:
- The calories> calories = weight increase
- The calories = calories = optimal body weight
- The calories <calorie = weight reduction
And to this day energy (proteins) entered through food consumed, it must have physical activity. Otherwise, there are deposition and conversion to fatty tissue. Activity in intensity is divided into low, moderate, and high;
- Low activity: walking, stationary bike, light sports, yoga (consumption up to 4 kcal/min)
- Moderate activity: brisk walking, intensive housework, aerobics (4-7kcal / min)
- High activity: running, hiking, swimming, football (> 7kcal / min)
According to what we have before stated, for the daily operation of the basal metabolism, it is necessary least that energy. Basal metabolic rate (BMR – basal metabolic rate) is the lowest power consumption that a person spends in a state of rest, which is used to reflect the body’s vital processes of the organism. To maintain the basal metabolic rate in a standard, there is a formula for it which reads; BMR = body weight kg x 20 col. So if can get an accurate portrayal of the daily dose of calories.
The body organ that regulates metabolism in the brain. Here are the functions that it regulates;
- The work of the autonomic nervous system
- Production and control of emotions
- Regulates body temperature
- Regulate food intake through two centers: Center for hunger and thirst for the center
In every person from 70 to 80% of total energy consumption goes on basal metabolism. The rest goes to work metabolism. All these processes together provide a mechanism that keeps us alive.
PYRAMID OF HEALTHY FOOD
To meet all the necessary nutrients, which are important to our body, we must know that the safest way to do this is diversified food. So, to achieve the values for energy by feeding, it is important to plan proper nutrition that improves health and prevents disease. In addition, it is recommended to divide the food into three to six meals a day.
Here are the basic principles of proper nutrition; as we have said, use a variety of foods, mostly of plant origin. Food is of animal origin used in limited quantities. Base food should be fruits and vegetables. Besides this, it is important to take in enough grains. What more to eat the fish. Choose foods with less sugar. Drink more water and avoid carbonated and alcoholic beverages. These are some of the basic principles of nutrition.
Adhere to the basics of nutrition means to maintain health in optimal condition.