– Disease with a thousand faces

What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which means that inflammatory lesions can affect the large and small brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. it is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by the process of demyelinating the spinal cord and brain. The demineralization process involves a white substance whiteness, myelin that is an integral part of the nervous tissue.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disorder diagnosed in young adults. Its causes are not yet fully understood and researchers continue to search for answers. Although the disease may not be cured or prevented at this time, treatments are available to reduce the severity and delay progression.

The name “multiple sclerosis” is derived from this process – multiple (many) since it occurs in a number of places within the nervous system and sclerosis(scars) which means the hardened patches of scar tissue that form over the damaged myelin.

The effects of MS differ with each individual. Some people experience symptoms for a short period of time and afterward may remain symptom-free for years, while others may experience a more steady progression of the disease.

Multiple sclerosis can occur at any age. The illness usually occurs between the age of 20 and 40 and is more common in women than in men. Currently, there are 2.5 million people in the world suffering from this disease.

 

 

Symptoms

Symptoms vary from person to person, depending on which part of the central nervous system is most affected by the damage, so the disease does not have any “pattern” that could easily be recognized. Diagnosis is most closely supported by the analysis of the liquor (brainwashing fluid and spinal cord) and the MRI of the brain and spinal column, which can be used to detect areas of inflammation and damage to the myelin envelope.

However, there are a number of symptoms that are very characteristic of most patients: weakness, fatigue, stiffness, incoordination, trembling, vague speech, depression, muscle spasms, balance problems, vision, kidneys and bladder, sexual function, memory, and thought flow, or complete paralysis possible. Very often, MS occurs in the form of a slight single symptom, such as blurred vision or leg stiffness.

When experiencing one or more of these symptoms, an individual should consult his or her physician. Medications are available to treat nearly all MS symptoms. These may include over-the-counter drugs as well as prescribed medications. Diet and exercise may also be helpful in managing certain symptoms. All treatments or changes in diet or exercise should only be done under the guidance of a qualified physician.

Diagnosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and damage can affect the brain and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis damages myelin envelopes that transmit impulses or stimuli between the nerve cells. In places where the myelin envelope disappears, scars are called sclerosis, plaque, or lesion.

No single search has a diagnostic value. However, the results of laboratory tests, multiple sclerosis can be distinguished from other conditions and diseases with similar symptoms. With the help of magnetic resonance, the areas that have lost myelin can be detected in the brain.

Through magnetic resonance, the characteristic of brain injuries can be detected, where the inflammation has occurred or is in progress. In order to diagnose MS, doctors must find evidence of two injuries in various central nervous system sites. Although, there are cases where MS diagnosis has been confirmed, and the injuries themselves are not visible.

MS diagnosis is based upon an individual’s history of clinical symptoms and neurological examinations. A qualified physician – often a neurologist – must thoroughly review all symptoms experienced by an individual to suspect MS. Other conditions with similar symptoms must be ruled out, often requiring various lab tests.

 

 

Treatment

MS can occur at any age but is most common between the ages of 20 and 45. Women get 2-3 times more likely than men.

Multiple sclerosis does not exist, Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which there is no cure. Treatment usually focuses on accelerating recovery from attacks, slowing the progression of the disease, and managing symptoms. But with appropriate therapy, symptoms are eliminated and the quality of life of patients is improved. Most often, corticosteroids (prednisone) are used in the therapy, which can relieve the symptoms between disease infections, but do not affect the possible occurrence of long-term disability.

Other promising treatments, still in the study, include other interferons, myelin taken to the mouth, and copolymer 1 to prevent the body from attacking its own myelin. There was no benefit from plasmapheresis and intravenous use of gamma globulin, and for long-term treatment, these procedures are not of practical value.

Corticosteroids, such as prednisone taken on the mouth or methylprednisolone administered intravenously in short periods to facilitate acute symptoms, have been the main form of treatment for decades. Although corticosteroids may shorten the time of seizure, they do not stop for a long time from the disability that is progressing. The usefulness of corticosteroids can overcome many possible side effects that occur during prolonged use-increased susceptibility of infections, diabetes, weight gain, fatigue, osteoporosis (broken bones), and values.

Beta-interferon therapy is often used to reduce the frequency of recurrence. If these therapies do not give results, gammaglobulin may be administered once a month, intravenously, to help control the recurrence of the disease. A mixture of synthetic polymers serves as a scam for the immune system and in this way reduces its attacks on the myelin membrane. Several drugs can be used to relieve spasms, fatigue, and bladder problems. People with MS often say that treatments that do not use drugs, such as exercises and adequate rest, help keep their life activities. Physical activity and exercises can significantly strengthen weakened musculature and improve coordination.

 

 

Treatments for signs and symptoms:

Physical therapy – a patient-therapist can learn stretching and strengthening exercises, and show how to use devices that can make daily tasks easier.

Muscle relaxation – uncontrolled stiffness of the muscles or cramps (especially in the legs) can be relieved by drugs such as Lioresal and Gablofen.

Other medicines that are prescribed are antidepressants, painkillers, and bladder control.

Multiple sclerosis occurs throughout the world, but is most common in the northern parts of Europe and the United States, while it is very rare in the tropics and the Far East. It is therefore assumed that MS affects the climate, but also the way of life – for example, in the Far East, nutrition is much richer in essential fatty acids (fish and seafood, seeds and natural vegetable oils) that act as countermeasures and are important for the health of the nervous system.