Bromatology examines everything that relates to foods to their introduction into the body. The science of nutrition studies people how to use food in the human organism, its food needs from energy, material, and protective aspects, as well as its behavior with the ballast food ingredients and those resulting from its degradation in the body.
Bromatology is a food science (bromine) and studies the composition, structure, and properties of foodstuffs as well as their changes in standing, processing, processing, or preserving.
The science of nutrition teaches that people in different periods and conditions of life (age, physical activity, etc.) should be fed, and food has the best effect on their health, development, work, and mental capacity. After digestion, absorbed nutrients are subject to multiple changes in the body that are labeled as metabolism. Building tissue from these ingredients is called anabolism, and their degradation, as well as tissue degradation of the organism, is catabolism.
The general characteristic of all living beings is that they exist in a continuous dual process: construction and decomposition. Old, worn-out cells break down and replaced by new ones. In organisms whose growth is completed, under normal nutrition conditions, anabolic processes are in a dynamic equilibrium with the catabolic, i.e., normal tissue regeneration is performed. However, in young growing organisms, anabolic processes are much more intense than catabolic, as, in addition to regeneration, the synthesis of new tissue cells is carried out.
The quality and usability of foods depend on their composition, condition (preservation), and hygienic correctness. The basic task of bromatology is to examine organoleptic properties, composition, and hygienic correctness of foods and, by the obtained results and legally prescribed norms, evaluates their usability for human consumption and placing on the market.
Importance of nutrition science
Man is omnivorous because it feeds on food and plant and animal origin. Man’s body needs daily, besides others, about 35 biologically important nutrients, which can not be synthesized from the present foods themselves. These are essential amino acids, vitamins, macros, and microelements. A prolonged disadvantage of some of the nutrients listed in the diet leads to various diseases. No natural foods contain all the essential nutrients for humans. All necessary nutrients can be found only in suitable combinations of many foods. Proper selection of foods for proper nutrition can be made only if their composition is known, and this is the basic task of bromatology.
Food ingredients that humans use to satisfy their needs
They are called nutrients. All foods consist of a relatively small number of nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins.
Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are contained in large quantities, and the needs of humans in these ingredients are high, so they are called essential nutrients. Minerals and vitamins are found in foods in small quantities, but their absence from food leads to disorders in the human body. They are called protective nutrients.
According to the role of the organism, nutrients are classified into:
1. Energy: (carbohydrates, fats). They oxidize in the body the liberating energy that supplies the body.
2. Building or plastic: (proteins, Ca and P). From them, the body builds its proteins or tissues. Ca and P participate in the bone-building (70% of dry matter bone consists of these elements).
3. Protective: mineral substances and vitamins.
Classification of foods
1. Division by Origin:
a) Food products of plant origin (cereals and cereal products, vegetables and fruits and products of Fruits and vegetables, vegetable fats, sugar, and spices).
b) Foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, fish, eggs and their products, honey, milk and milk products, fats of animal origin).
c) Foodstuffs of mineral origin (water, salt)
2. Division according to the role they have in the body:
a) Construction (proteins, minerals, water)
b) Energy (carbohydrates, fats, proteins)
c) Protective and catalytic (vitamins and minerals)
Foods are difficult to classify because of their high number and heterogeneity regarding composition and organoleptic properties. The division can be done by different criteria.
No food divisions are ideal, because the foodstuffs contain more or less all the components in each other’s very different relationships.
The nutrition of the population should consist of foods that will provide meals containing all the necessary ingredients.
Therefore, food products can be divided into six basic groups:
1. Milk, cheese, and sour-milk products.
2. Meat, birds, fish, eggs, and products.
3. Flour, bread, sugar, macaroni, confectionery, and potatoes.
4. Fats (grease, oil, margarine).
5. Vegetables (cabbage, spinach, beans, peas, etc.)
6. Fruit and fruit products, e.g., juices.
Animal foods are distinguished by the high content of complete proteins and high content of vitamin-soluble fats as well as vitamin B groups. They also contain significant amounts of fat. Except for milk, they are very poor in carbohydrates. They do not contain raw cellulose, so their digestibility in the body is very high. They do not contain vitamin C. Some foods of animal origin are rich in vitamins A and D (butter, fish).
Foods of plant origin are distinguished by the high content of carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. Only these foods contain raw cellulose. A large number of foods in this group in the fresh state are the only source of vitamin C, some of the vitamin K. They also contain significant amounts of protein, but which are partially incomplete in nutritional value.
Cereals and chromium contain significant amounts of starch. Fresh fruits and vegetables contain a mixture of glucose and fructose. Cereals, fruits, and vegetables also contain vitamins B, vitamins D, and E. They also contain significant amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, and some microelements.
Principles of Rational Nutrition
The needs of people in food that is, in energy, material, and protective components, depending on the various factors affecting them, treat the principles of rational nutrition.
FIRST PRINCIPLE: It treats the overall energy needs of people.
According to this principle, people’s energy needs must be met completely, and this is achieved by foods containing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. By importing carbohydrates and fats in larger quantities than necessary, obesity occurs, and in minor to malnutrition and their consequences.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: It treats people’s needs for specific food ingredients.
According to this principle, people have to eat inappropriate amounts of specific ingredients: 8 essential amino acids, essential fatty acids (linoleic), all vitamins, mineral ingredients, including micro-elements, raw cellulose, which even though it is unsinkable, gives the volume of foods and water.
THIRD PRINCIPLE: Treats the balance of food ingredients.
According to this principle, the food must be balanced between:
– Basic nutrients, so that in the total energy of the food relationship
Carbohydrates: Fats: Proteins: 55-60%: 17-33%: 10-12%.
– Protein of animal and protein of plant origin, the ratio of which should be about 50%: 50%.
Since animal proteins contain insufficient quantities of all essential amino acids and complementing the plant, this mixture of these proteins in approximately the same quantities behaves as individual full-value proteins.
– Jet fats (animal) and edible oils (herbal), the ratio of which should be
About 50%: 50%. Oils are rich in essential fatty acids and supplement in this
Regarding poor fat, some liposoluble vitamins are added to animal fats and provitamins: (D, A, sterols, carotenes).
– Basic and protective nutrients:
a) The content of vitamin B should be proportionate to the content of carbohydrates in food. Namely, in the composition of carboxylase, vitamin B1 participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, that is, in the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid.
b) The content of the raw cellulose, which is impermeable, but gives the volume of food and allows it normal digestion of the digestive tract should be proportionate to the amount of food.
Food should contain 1.0 – 2.0% of raw cellulose.
– Individual Protective Ingredients:
a) If there is substantially more vitamin A in the diet than necessary, there are symptoms of Avitaminosis of vitamin D if this vitamin has enough. Conversely, if there is in food
Significantly more vitamin D than necessary, there are symptoms of avitaminosis Vit. A.
b) In addition to containing enough Ca and P, their quantities must be mutually exclusive balanced. Otherwise, there is a disorder in bone ossification or regeneration.
The Ca: P ratio should be 0.8: 1.6 and lower for the elderly, and higher for those who grow.
– Foods that release acid into the body and those they release alkaline degradation products:
Acid degradation products in the body release those foods that contain more P and S more alkaline and alkaline earth metals, which are, besides milk, foods of animal origin, and grain.
Alkaline degradation products release foods containing more alkaline substances and alkaline earth metals than P and S, which are apart from cereals, foods of plant origin, and milk.
– The balance between individual nutrients in food is achieved by combining, or a selection of different foods.
Metabolism and Energy
Metabolism includes the intake, degradation, absorption, utilization, processing of nutrients to exploit energy for life processes. The metabolism of each person is different, and it changes depending on age, height, weight, body composition (muscle and fat tissue), energy consumption, different for men and women, and depends on climatic conditions. Thus, e.g., will not have the same metabolism as two people in Europe and Australia that have the same weight, height, and age.
Metabolism is the totality of biological, physical, and biochemical reactions and processes that occur in the body at the level of tissues and cells to sustain life.
In addition to basal metabolism to determine total energy consumption, two other types of metabolism are used: the specific dynamic action of food (thermogenesis for digestion of meals) and active metabolism.
The ratio of these three parts of the metabolism is as follows:
– the specific-dynamic effect of food is from 6% to 10%
– basal metabolism from 60% to 70%
– active metabolism from 20% to 30%
An active metabolism is an all-energy energy activity that needs muscle and locomotives for energy consumption. Standing, walking, talking, running, etc. forms of physical activity in one day give a sum of energy that we designate as the consumption of active metabolism. What is the body in better condition and has more muscles that are well-trained and active it is active metabolism greater?
The specific-dynamic effect of food refers to the energy of the digestive system that is consumed by digestion. It is that nice feeling of warmth and pleasant relaxation after a meal that calls us to slumber and inactivity. It depends on the type of meal, e.g., Whether the meal is cold or warm, whether it is greasy or rich in sugar, which spices contain, whether digestion is greater or less, and other.
Metabolism takes place in two main phases simultaneously: catabolism and anabolism.
Processes of degradation of complex organic compounds into prostate compounds are called catabolism, and processes of synthesis of complex organic compounds from simple organic compounds anabolism.
As the final products of decomposition of basic nutrients, carbon dioxide, water, and other products are excreted from the body.
The metabolism of inorganic food ingredients differs substantially from the metabolism of organic ingredients, as inorganic constituents in the organism are neither degraded nor synthesized. They are fed with food; they are absorbed, perform their function, and are excreted from the body.
Determination and calculation of the energy value of food
Minerals do not burn, and they do not release energy, and vitamins, although organic ingredients are present in food in such small quantities that their energy is completely negligible. The energy that the nutrients have at their disposal originates from the sun, which is the energy that plants use to build nutrients. (photosynthesis). With complete oxidation of fats and proteins, they also release the amount of energy used for their construction. If the common feature of nutrients is that they have energy, the characteristic of the human organism and all living beings is that they use that energy for work and heat. Therefore, the value of food is measured by the unit of work, energy, and heat, i. joule-J. (that is, mega-joule-MJ).
Food needs are very different in humans and depend on their body weight, age, gender, and physical engagement. To be able to determine them accurately, it was necessary to determine the unit of the common, measurable, properties of nutrients. This common property of the basic nutrients, fats, carbohydrates, and proteins is that as organic ingredients they have energy that is released as heat during burning (oxidation) in the organism or a calorimetric bomb.
When calculating the energy value of foods, only the amount of basic nutrients, that is, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, because raw cellulose is not digestible, mineral substances and water do not burn, and the amounts of vitamins are very small and do not take into account. The percentages of the basic nutrients are multiplied by the corresponding coefficients, the values obtained are summed up, and the sum represents the energy value of 100 g. Foodstuffs.
If the food contains more water, it has a lower amount of basic nutrients, and therefore a lower energy value. However, the high energy value of food does not mean that it is the most nutritious. The energy value is only one component of nutrition.