In the early twentieth century, psychiatrist Kurt Schneider compiled a list of psychotic symptoms that he considered to distinguish schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. These symptoms are called first-rank symptoms. These symptoms are illusions, the patient’s sense of control by an external force, the belief that someone else’s thoughts are inserted into the head, or extracted from it, the belief that his thoughts are passed on to other people, the obsession with hallucinogenic voices that comment on his thoughts or activities or who are talking with other hallucinogenic voices.
But the notion of how the term was introduced was a bit earlier. I was introduced in 1911 by Zurich psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler. then it was applied around the world. Somewhat the same meaning in clinical terminology is a more general term “psychosis”. Schizophrenia literally translated means “divided soul”. But it’s not about sharing a personality, as is always assumed. It is, in fact, thought that the opinion, feelings, and behavior of the patient is not consistent.
Schizophrenia is a mental illness accompanied by a lot of stigma and misinformation. This often increases the anxiety of sick people and their families.
About one-third of people with schizophrenia experience only one or a few short episodes of the disease in their lives. In others, it may occasionally appear throughout your life. The illness can occur rapidly, with acute symptoms that develop within a few weeks or slow when aggravation occurs for months or even years.
Schizophrenia usually appears for the first time in people between the ages of 15 and 20, although it can occur later in life. Schizophrenia affects about one percent of the entire population.
The illness can occur rapidly, with acute symptoms that develop within a few weeks or slow when aggravation occurs for months or even years. During the illness, the ill person often withdraws from the others, the western one in the depression, and he/she is anxious and develops unusual ideas or horrible fear. Admitting these early signs is important in order to provide early treatment.
Early recognition and effective early treatment are vital to the future well-being of people with schizophrenia.
The clinical picture of schizophrenia
The development of the disease can be from a sudden start to a disorderly, almost inconspicuous course of disease development. The severity of the disease also varies considerably from one patient to the next. People with schizophrenia are more prone to additional (comorbid) conditions, including depression and anxiety disorder. People with schizophrenia live shorter for 12 to 15 years because they have an increased proportion of complications in physical health, and the percentage of suicides has increased. Symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided severely into positive and negative
Positive symptoms are hallucinations, silly ideas, and bizarre behavior. Negative symptoms are emotional withdrawal, apathy, and absurdity.
Hallucinations or perceptions
Acceptance is manifested through the voices heard by a person and they are not present in reality (acoustic or auditory hallucinations). Also, a person can be perceived to see some people, scenes that do not actually see (visual or visual), or to feel the smells most commonly unfavorable (olfactory or fragrant), etc. Hearing hallucinations can be an imperative character, that is, ordering and ordering a person to, for example, Kill by jumping through the window or attacking someone, etc.
Disturbances of thinking
The patient will interrupt the conversation in the middle of the sentence or will completely lose the thread. It’s called a block of thought. He often feels “overwhelmed” with certain thoughts. The phrases are often masked, the mind has no determining thread, and this is called dissociation in thinking. The order of the word can be disrupted by what is called “salad of the word” or the patient can pronounce entirely new words called neologism.
A person believes that he is being persecuted by other people, that he is God or that everything is related to him (the ideas of a relationship), is held firmly by his conquests, which can not be deterred by any conviction or proof that his ideas do not correspond to reality.
Negative symptoms contribute more to poor quality of life, poor functionality. There is a loss of will. There is a problem with doing the usual everyday and professional tasks. The patient can not even rejoice, nor express his feelings in the way he could. Invasion inversion can also occur.
How to get sick?
Almost one in 100 people suffer at least once in life from schizophrenia. As with other psychiatric disorders, the hereditary predispositions and environmental effects of life play an equally important role. They stretch from infections of the mother during pregnancy, complications during childbirth, and traumatic experiences in childhood and youth, all the way to live in a city, and stress in current relationships. The beneficial effect on the onset of psychosis is the consumption of drugs, especially cannabis (hashish).
The diagnosis of schizophrenia is set by psychiatrists (physicians specialists, especially educated for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders). Diagnosis is determined on the basis of psychiatric interviews (interviews) with the patient and members of his family. To date, there are no laboratory diagnostic tests for schizophrenia. In the bashed form of schizophrenia, it is diagnosed only in adolescents and young adults, with continuous observation in the duration of 2 – 3 months.
Successful treatment is a very important time that has passed since the onset of symptoms until the onset of treatment because it affects the rate of improvement, the quality of the response to therapy, and the severity of the negative symptoms.
The choice of drugs depends on these symptoms and facts:
- Whether the patient is suicidal or aggressive
- Does it jeopardize your life, health, or social position
- Whether it is possible to monitor it continuously (whether in the hospital or at home)
- Does it suffer from some somatic illness?
- Gender, Age, Body Weight
- Previous experience in treatment (results achieved with previous medication)
- Possible data on the success of drug use in a relative
In the treatment of the acute phase, psycho-pharmacotherapy is in the first place. The most commonly used are neuroleptics (antipsychotics). More recently risperidone and olanzapine have been used, which have the advantages of highly opioid neuroleptics with fewer side effects. In addition to neuroleptics, anxiolytics and sedatochnostics are also used. In extremely troubled patients benzodiazepine is administered, and depressant patients use antidepressants. Antiepileptics and mood stabilizers can also be used. After melting the acute phase of the disease, lower doses of antipsychotics are used in maintenance therapy, very often in the form of depot preparations. This is necessary because there may be a further aggravation of the disease. It is therefore recommended that at least two years of using antipsychotics and antidepressants for at least six months if it is a depressive patient. After several years and depending on the psychiatric condition, long-term use of drugs may be abandoned in some patients. Immediately after withdrawal of acute symptoms, most patients should start with various forms of psychotherapy, including in the therapeutic community and physical activity.